Administrative burden

Costs borne by individuals and businesses in order to comply with information obligations resulting from Government regulation or associated with obtaining specific services or exploiting a functionality.

Indirectly, this includes the costs to public administrations of dealing with multiple procedures, data and information concerning the same subject, ultimately paid by individuals and businesses.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Authoritative source

An authoritative source is information that is stored only once and which is believed to be correct, so can serve as a basis for further processing.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Base Registry / Register

A Base Registry is identified as being a trusted and authoritative source of information which can and should be digitally reused by others and in which one organisation is responsible and accountable for the collection, usage, updating and preservation of information. Base registries are reliable sources of basic information on items such as persons, companies, vehicles, licences, buildings, locations and roads.

This type of information constitutes the master data for public administration and European Public Service delivery. "Authoritative" in this context means that a Base Registry is considered to be the source of information i.e. which represents the correct status, which is up-to-date and which is of highest possible quality.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Base Registry framework

A Base Registry framework describes the agreements and infrastructure for operating Base Registries and the relationships with other entities.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Basic public services

Basic public services are a type of service that can be reused for creating integrated public services (e.g. issuing a birth certificate).

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Blockchain

A blockchain is a distributed database that keeps a continuously-growing list of records protected from revision and tampering. Basically, the blockchain technology is a public ledger that records all transactions that have ever occurred.

The official blockchain public site lets any person to get these transactions in real time and evaluate the basic stats of the system, such as the time between blocks, a number of blocks made, mining costs, the cost per transaction and most fascinatingly even the electricity used to mine bitcoins.

Source: Blockchain – Definition, Origin, and History

Further information: 

Consent (of natural person data subjects to personal data processing)

Any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she by statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Core vocabularies

Simplified, re-usable and extensible data models that capture the fundamental characteristics of a data entity in a context-neutral fashion.

A set of commonly agreed Core Vocabularies supported by the EU Member States have been created to provide a concrete starting point for promoting semantic interoperability among European public administrations; see: Joinup: Core Vocabularies.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Cross-border by default

Cross-border by default is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that public administrations should make relevant digital public services available across borders and prevent further fragmentation to arise, thereby facilitating mobility within the Single Market.

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

Cross-border processing

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) definition illustrates its difference from the general meaning of further processing in conjunction with OOP at European level (which typically involves multiple data controllers and data subjects in more than one Member State):

(a) processing of personal data which takes place in the context of the activities of establishments in more than one Member State of a controller or processor in the Union where the controller or processor is established in more than one Member State; or

(b) processing of personal data which takes place in the context of the activities of a single establishment of a controller or processor in the Union but which substantially affects or is likely to substantially affect data subjects in more than one Member State.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data controller

From Art. 4(1) of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): The natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law.

The European Data Protection Supervisor defines it as: The institution or body that (either alone or jointly or in common with other persons) determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data. In particular, the controller has the duties of ensuring the quality of data and, in the case of the EU institutions and bodies, of notifying the processing operation to the data protection officer (DPO). In addition, the data controller is also responsible for the security measures protecting the data. The controller is also the entity that receives requests from data referents to exercise their rights.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data model

A data model is a collection of entities, their properties and the relationships among them, which aims at formally representing a domain, a concept or a real-world thing. It includes core vocabularies.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data ownership

Under EU law, personal data may not be owned. For other types of data, the following definition may be useful:

“The act of having legal rights and complete control over a single piece or set of data elements. It defines and provides information about the rightful owner of data assets and the acquisition, use and distribution policy implemented by the data owner.

Data ownership is primarily a data governance process that details an organisation's legal ownership of enterprise-wide data. A specific organisation or the data owner has the ability to create, edit, modify, share and restrict access to the data. Data ownership also defines the data owner’s ability to assign, share or surrender all of these privileges to a third party. This concept is generally implemented in medium to large enterprises with huge repositories of centralised or distributed data elements. The data owner claims the possession and copyrights to such data to ensure their control and ability to take legal action if their ownership is illegitimately breached by an internal or external entity.”

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data processing

Any operation or set of operations which is performed upon personal data, whether or not by automatic means, such as collection, recording, organisation, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, blocking, erasure or destruction.

In particular, includes:

  1. organisation, adaptation or alteration of the information or data,
  2. retrieval, consultation or use of the information or data,
  3. disclosure of the information or data by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, or
  4. alignment, combination, blocking, erasure or destruction of the information or data.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data processor

A natural or legal person, public authority, agency or any other body which processes personal data on behalf of (and subject to instruction by) the controller. The processor only acts on behalf of (and subject to instruction by) the data controller.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data referent

The natural person or business to whom the data pertains; in this context also the person, citizen or business requesting the service for which data are used.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data requestor

A public administration data controller that uses data about a data referent to complete an administrative procedure, deliver a service or make a decision. Here, this refers to the data controller who obtains information under the OOP.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data subject

The (natural) person whose personal data are collected, held or processed.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Data supplier

A public administration or authorised data controller or data processor who holds data about data referents on behalf of a public administration and who makes these data available to data requestors.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Database ownership

Entity that controls, governs and/or is liable for the operation of a database.

This is a complex area, partially clarified by the Database Directive, which distinguishes the rights of database ‘makers’ and ‘users.’

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Digital by default

Digital by default is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that public administrations should deliver services digitally (including machine readable information) as the preferred option (while still keeping other channels open for those who are disconnected by choice or necessity). In addition, public services should be delivered through a single contact point or a one-stop-shop and via different channels.

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

Further information: Digital by default: A guide to transforming government

Digital Once-Only Principle

Applying technical and procedural solutions based on information and communication technologies and data to be digitally available, in order to eliminate or at least reduce the extent to which individuals and businesses are required to provide the same information more than once to public administrations, while respecting national and European data privacy and other relevant regulations.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe

The vision of a Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe is defined by fewer barriers, and more opportunities: it is a seamless area where people and business can trade, innovate and interact legally, safely, securely, and at an affordable cost, making their lives easier. The Digital Single Market Strategy will be built on three pillars:

  • Better access for consumers and businesses to online goods and services across Europe – this requires the rapid removal of key differences between the online and offline worlds to break down barriers to cross-border online activity.
  • Creating the right conditions for digital networks and services to flourish – this requires high-speed, secure and trustworthy infrastructures and content services, supported by the right regulatory conditions for innovation, investment, fair competition and a level playing field.
  • Maximising the growth potential of our European Digital Economy – this requires investment in ICT infrastructures and technologies such as Cloud computing and Big Data, and research and innovation to boost industrial competitiveness as well as better public services, inclusiveness and skills.

Sources: A Digital Single Market Strategy for Europe

Further information: European Commission: Digital Single Market

 

e-Government

e-Government is about using the tools and systems made possible by information and communication technologies (ICTs) to provide better public services to individuals and businesses.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

e-SENS

The project Electronic Simple European Networked Services (e-SENS) is to facilitate the deployment of cross-border digital public services through generic and re-usable technical components, based on the building blocks of the Large Scale Pilots.

The consolidated technical solutions, with a strong focus on e-ID, e-Documents, e-Delivery, Semantics and e-Signatures, aim to provide the foundation for a platform of “core services” for the eGovernment cross-border digital infrastructure foreseen in the regulation for implementing the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF).

These solutions are implemented in pilot production environments where actual transactions among public administrative bodies, or between them and European citizens and businesses, can take place. This is expected to unlock the potential of cross-border services and strengthen the functioning of the Digital Single Market in Europe.

Source: e-SENS project website

Further Information: German Federal Office of Administration

eID

Electronic identification is one of the tools to ensure secure access to online services and to carry out electronic transactions in a safer way.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Electronic certification

Electronic certification is the application of an electronic signature, by a specifically authorised person or entity, in a specific context for a specific purpose. It is mostly used to indicate that a certain validation process has been executed and that a given result is being attested by the signer. In the simplest case, it can merely represent the assertion of a given fact by an authorised person.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Electronic records

As defined by the second version of the Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records (MoReq2): a record is "Information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organisation or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business".

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Electronic signature

According to Directive 1999/93/EC, 'electronic signature' means data in electronic form which are attached to or logically associated with other electronic data and which serve as a method of authentication.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

European eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

The digital transformation of government is a key element to the success of the Single Market. It will help to remove existing digital barriers and prevent further fragmentation arising in the context of the modernisation of public administrations.

Therefore, the European eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 aims:

  • to modernise public administration,
  • to achieve the digital internal market, and
  • to engage more with citizens and businesses to deliver high quality services.

The European eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 will support the coordination and collaboration at European Union level. Through the joint efforts between Member States and the Commission, the availability and take-up of eGovernment services can be increased, resulting in faster, cheaper and more user-oriented digital public services.

Source: European eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020 

Further information:

European Interoperability Framework (EIF)

The EIF provides guidance for the provision of European Public Services and a common set of core concepts for the design and update of national interoperability frameworks (NIFs), policies, strategies, guidelines and action plans that promote interoperability.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

European Interoperability Reference Architecture (EIRA)

The European Interoperability Reference Architecture (EIRA) is a reference architecture for designing and describing digital public services across borders and sectors. The EIRA is aligned with the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) and complies with the context given in the European Interoperability Strategy (EIS). A common EIRA facilitates interoperability between public administrations and the reuse of solutions when developing European Public Services at the various levels of the administration.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

European Interoperability Strategy (EIS)

The European Interoperability Strategy (EIS) is a systematic approach to govern interoperability at EU level, with specific goals set. To this end, the European Interoperability Strategy (EIS) provides a basis for an organisational, financial and operational framework to support cross-border and/or cross-sectoral interoperability. The EIS steers the EIF and all other associated efforts by setting strategic priorities and objectives.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

GDPR

The General Data Protection Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2016/679) is a Regulation intended to strengthen and unify personal data protection for individuals within the European Union (EU). It also addresses transfers of personal data outside the EU. The GDPR will be directly applicable on 25 May 2018 and will repeal and replace the data protection Directive 95/46/EC.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Inclusiveness and accessibility

Inclusiveness and accessibility is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that public administrations should design digital public services that are inclusive by default and cater for different needs such as those of the elderly and people with disabilities.

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

 

Interface

An interface is a conceptual or physical boundary where two (or more) independent legal systems, organisations, processes, communicators, IT systems, or any variation/combination thereof interact.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Interoperability

Interoperability means the ability of disparate and diverse organisations to interact towards mutually beneficial and agreed common goals, involving the sharing of information and knowledge between the organisations, through the business processes they support, by means of the exchange of data between their respective ICT systems.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Interoperability agreements

Written interoperability agreements are concrete and binding documents which set out the precise obligations of two parties cooperating across an interface to achieve interoperability.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Interoperability by default

Interoperability by default is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that public services should be designed to work seamlessly across the Single Market and across organisational silos, relying on the free movement of data and digital services in the European Union.

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

Further information: e-Government Interoperability A comparative analysis of 30 countries

Interoperability framework

An interoperability framework is a commonly agreed approach to interoperability for organisations that wish to work together towards joint delivery of public services and/or exchange of information. It specifies a set of common elements such as a common vocabulary, concepts, principles, policies, guidelines, recommendations, standards, specifications and practices.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Interoperability governance

Interoperability governance defines interoperability frameworks, institutional arrangements, organisational structures, roles and responsibilities, policies, agreements and other aspects necessary for ensuring and monitoring interoperability at EU and national level.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Interoperability layers

The interoperability layers include:

  • four layers of interoperability — legal, organisational, information and technical;
  • a cross-cutting component called "Public service governance"; and
  • "Interoperability governance".

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Interoperability solution

Interoperability solutions include common frameworks, common services and generic tools facilitating cooperation between disparate and diverse organisations, either autonomously funded and developed by the ISA/ISA² Programme or developed in cooperation with other European Union initiatives, based on identified requirements of European public administrations:

  • A framework (strategies, specifications, methodologies, guidelines and similar approaches and documents);
  • A service (operational consequences and infrastructures of a generic nature which meet common user requirements across policy areas);
  • A generic tool (reference platforms, shared and collaborative platforms, common components and similar building blocks which meet common user requirements across policy areas).

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Loose coupling

Loose coupling refers to communications between systems that operate more or less independently of one another (asynchronously) and whose internal states are not strongly interdependent.

The coupling takes the form of messages passed between the systems in question, typically implemented using some type of middleware layer or queuing system, so that the target system deals with requests as and when it can. Thus, the target system may not even be available at the time of the request, which is simply queued for later action.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

MAGDA 2.0 platform

The MAGDA (Maximum Data Sharing between Agencies) Platform provides one common Web services platform for the Flemish Government’s 190 agencies and 13 departments. MAGDA allows access to authentic sources of citizen and enterprise data, harnessing reusable technologies and applications that can be easily adapted to different government administrations, from the regional to the local level, and increasingly also to the federal level.

As a result, MAGDA allows agencies to deploy new citizen-focused Web-enabled services swiftly and seamlessly, improving service delivery to its citizens. With data centralized and accessible from one place, all communications with citizens are focused and deliberate, minimizing correspondence and duplicate requests for information. Citizens simply have to enter their personal data once and can expect their information to be consistent, up-to-date and complete across all of the agencies with which they interact. The MAGDA platform thus enables once-only data collection via the national eID card, and is the core infrastructure on which the Flemish government can progressively add new services and applications.

Source: Joinup

Master data

The description of the core data assets and their relationships that are necessary for providing European Union Public Service provisioning.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Master data management

The governance and a capability aimed at ensuring the uniformity, quality, stewardship, semantic consistency for the accountability of master data.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Memorandum of understanding

A bilateral or multilateral written agreement between two organisations which sets out a number of areas and means by which they will cooperate, collaborate or otherwise assist one another.

The exact nature of these activities depends on the nature of the two organisations, the domain of activity in question, and the scope of the cooperation envisaged.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Multichannel delivery

A channel is a means used by an administration to interact with and deliver services to its users, and for users to contact public administrations with the aim of acquiring public services.

The term 'user' includes individuals, businesses and organisations as consumers of public services. The set of different possible 'means' for electronic delivery constantly changes, and currently includes the use of web-based technologies, telephony, paper media, face-to-face contacts and many others, applications of these technologies such as the internet, e-mail, SMS, call centres or service counters, and devices to access these applications such as personal computers, mobile phones, kiosks or digital TV.

Multichannel delivery refers to the provision of public services simultaneously and independently via two or more such channels, selectable by the user according to needs.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

National Interoperability Framework (NIF)

NIFs are a set of frameworks, policies, strategies, guidelines and action plans defined by individual Member States to promote interoperability and to govern national IT systems and infrastructure within their own countries.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Once-Only Principle

The Once-Only Principle is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that public administrations should ensure that citizens and businesses supply the same information only once to a public administration. Public administration offices take action if permitted to internally re-use this data, in due respect of data protection rules, so that no additional burden falls on citizens and businesses. 

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

Anticipated benefits: government should be

  • Smart (can answer questions asked of it)
  • Light burden (does not make duplicate requests for information)
  • Fool-proof (fraud reduction by use of consistent authoritative information)
  • Evidence-based decisions (uses full, complete and consistent information)
  • Trustworthy (reliable decisions)

May be modified as to form (digital) and scope (cross-border).

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Further information: Dimensions of the Once-Only Principle

One-stop shop

One-stop shop means a single channel (office or a webpage) that offers multiple services to individuals or businesses from this "one stop" in one place. This scenario is popular among municipalities in many countries, for example for a range of functions or departments in a single location.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Open Data

Open Data and content means that is can be freely used, modified, and shared by anyone for any purpose. There are eight principles of open government data. These are:

  1. Complete: All public data is made available. Public data is data that is not subject to valid privacy, security or privilege limitations
  2. Primary: Data is as collected at the source, with the highest possible level of granularity, not in aggregate or modified forms.
  3. Timely: Data is made available as quickly as necessary to preserve the value of the data.
  4. Accessible: Data is available to the widest range of users for the widest range of purposes.
  5. Machine processable: Data is reasonably structured to allow automated processing.
  6. Non-discriminatory: Data is available to anyone, with no requirement of registration.
  7. Non-proprietary: Data is available in a format over which no entity has exclusive control.
  8. License-free: Data is not subject to any copyright, patent, trademark or trade secret regulation. Reasonable privacy, security and privilege restrictions may be allowed.

Sources:

Further information:

Openness & transparency

Openness & transparency is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that public administrations should share information and data between themselves and enable citizens and businesses to access control and correct their own data; enable users to monitor administrative processes that involve them; engage with and open up to stakeholders (such as businesses, researchers and nonprofit organisations) in the design and delivery of services. 

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

Further information: Government Transparency: Six Strategies for More Open and Participatory Government 

Personal data

Any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person ('data subject'); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Point of Single Contact (PSC)

Single institutional interlocutor for a given service provider through which the latter can collect all relevant information and easily complete at a distance and by electronic means all procedures and formalities to access a service activity and to the exercise thereof.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Profiling (of personal data)

Any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning that natural person's performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behaviour, location or movements.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Reference data

Reference data are small, discrete sets of values that are not updated as part of business transactions, but are usually used to impose consistent classification. Reference data normally have low update frequencies. Reference data are relevant across multiple business systems belonging to different organisations and sectors.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Secure data exchange

This is a component of the conceptual model for European Public Services. Its aim is to ensure that all cross-border data processing are done in a secure and controlled way.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

A formalised agreement between two cooperating entities; typically, a service provider and a user. The agreement is expressed in the form of a written, negotiated contract.

Typically, such agreements define specific metrics (Key Performance Indicators — KPIs) for measuring the performance of the service provider (which in total define the 'service level'), and document binding commitments defined as the attainment of specific targets for certain KPIs, plus associated actions such as corrective measures.

SLAs can also cover commitments by the user, for example to meet certain notification deadlines, provide facilities or other resources needed by the service provider in the course of service provision, problem solving, or to process inputs given by the service provider to the user.

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Service oriented architecture is a paradigm for organising and utilising distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domains. It provides a uniform means to offer, discover, interact with and use capabilities to produce desired effects consistent with measurable preconditions and expectations.

Source: OASIS Reference Model for SOA

Standard

As defined in European legislation (Article 2 of Regulation 1025/2012 on European Standardisation), a standard is a technical specification, adopted by a recognised standardisation body, for repeated or continuous application, with which compliance is not compulsory, and which is one of the following:

  • 'International standard' means a standard adopted by an international standardisation body,
  • 'European standard' means a standard adopted by a European standardisation organisation,
  • 'Harmonised standard' means a European standard adopted on the basis of a request made by the Commission for the application of Union harmonisation legislation,
  • 'National standard' means a standard adopted by a national standardisation body.

 

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Standards developing organisation

A chartered organisation tasked with producing standards and specifications, according to specific, strictly defined requirements, procedures and rules. Standards developing organisations include:

 

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

Trustworthiness & security

Trustworthiness & security is one of the seven underlying principles of the EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020. It means that all initiatives should go beyond the mere compliance with the legal framework on personal data protection and privacy, and IT security, by integrating those elements in the design phase. These are important pre-conditions for increasing trust in and take-up of digital services. 

Source: EU eGovernment Action Plan 2016-2020

Further information: 

 

Whole-Government Principle

The principle that persons and businesses interacting with a government entity are interacting with the whole of the national government. This principle is complementary to the OOP, but differs in that it is not limited to – and does not directly imply – data re-use. It includes:

  • The one-stop-shop principle – that individuals or businesses should not need to know how public administrations work or how competencies are allocated across state agencies but should instead be able to deal with a “single-window” representing public administration as a whole. At EU level, these are called Points of Single Contact (PSCs);
  • The “no wrong door” principle that there should be multiple channels for access to public services.

 

Source: Final Report "EU-wide digital Once-Only Principle for citizens and businesses"

X-Road (Estonia)

X-Road is the backbone of e-Estonia. It's the invisible yet crucial environment that allows the nation's various e-services databases, both in the public and private sector, to link up and operate in harmony.

One of the key elements of e-Estonia is that its databases are decentralized, which means:

  • There's no single owner or controller
  • Every government agency or business can choose the product that's right for them
  • Services can be added one at a time, as they're ready

X-Road is the all-important connection between these databases, the tool that allows them to work together for maximum impact. All of the Estonian e-solutions that use multiple databases use X-Road. All outgoing data from the X-Road is digitally signed and encrypted. All incoming data is authenticated and logged. Originally X-Road was a system used for making queries to the different databases. Now it has developed into a tool that can also write to multiple databases, transmit large data sets and perform searches across several databases.

Source: e-Estonia: Component X-Road

Further information: